Salts of oxoacids

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This article is a stub. It needs to be expanded.

The X-O-X bonds present in those compounds increase the space between the spacially linking X atoms. This lead to a lower density of bonds in cross sections inclusion of bigger voids thus higher porousity. Due to the porousness of these compounds it is harder to get the surfaces flat - figuratively like the surface of a pumice stone. It's impossible to get them as smooth as passivated diamond. [todo: investigate wheter superlubricating bearings can be constructed from these types of diamondoid compounds]

(wikipedia:oxoacid)

Silicates (& Quartz)

Not exactly a salt but related ...

  • PbCa3Zn4(SiO4)4 esperite [1] Mohs 5-5.5 (unabundant zinc | exceptionally hard lead mineral) Specific gravity: 4.28-4.42

Phosphate minerals

(wikipedia)

  • Especially interesting: Hydoxy- Fluor- & Clorapatite Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) - (Mohs 5 defining mineral) - a biomineral [2]
  • Lazulite (wikipedia) & Scorzalite (wikipedia) magnesium iron aluminium phosphates - (Mohs 5.5-6)
  • Phosphophyllite (wikipedia) - zinc iron phosphate - rather soft (Mohs 3.5)
  • Pb5(PO4)3Cl pyromorphite (wikipedia) - relatively hard for a lead mineral (Mohs 3.5)
  • Y(PO4) Xenotime (wikipedia) - rare yttrium - high symmetry (tetragonal) - (Mohs 4.5)
  • Al2(PO4)(OH)3 augelite [3] Mohs 4-4.5
  • FePO4 heterosite Wikipedia:Heterosit(de) Mohs 4-4.5
  • MnPO4 purpurite [4] Mohs 4-5 (unabundant manganese)
  • (MgFe)2PO4F magnesium and iron wagnerite [5] Mohs (?)
  • FeAl2(PO4)2 anhydous iron scorzalite [6] Mohs 6
  • MgAl2(PO4)2 anhydous magnesium scorzalite Mohs 6
  • Zn2Fe(PO4)2•4H2O phosphophyllite [7] Mohs 3.5 (soft)

Carbonate minerals

(wikipedia - minerals) (wikipedia - artificial)

  • Calcite Mohs 3 (defining mineral) & Aragonite Mohs 3.5-4 - calcium
  • Magnesite Mohs 3.5-4.5 - magnesium
  • Dolomite -- CaMg(CO3)2 [8] Mohs 3.5-4
  • Siderite - iron
  • Smithsonite - zinc
  • Malachite & Azurite - copper
  • Rhodochrosite - manganese (rare)
  • ...
  • Mg3Ca(CO3)4 huntite [9] Mohs 1-2 (very soft!)
  • PbCO3 cerussite [10] Mohs 3-3.5 (soft)

Sulfate minerals

(wikipedia)

Sulfate minerals are generally rather soft with few exceptions.
One of the harder ones is brochantite (wikipedia) - (Mohs 3.5-4)

  • CaSO4 anhydrite [11] (decomposes slowly to hydroxyde gypsum)

Borate minerals

(wikipedia)


  • Al6B5O15(F,OH)3 Jeremejevite (wikipedia) - (Mohs 6.5-7.5)
  • Mg7(BO3)3(OH)4Cl Karlite (wikipedia) - (Mohs 5½)
  • Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5 Howlite (wikipedia) - soft (Mohs 3.5)
  • MnSn(BO3)2 Tusionite (wikipedia) - (Mohs 5-6) - tin
  • CaZrAl9O15(BO3) Painite (wikipedia) - rare zirconium (Mohs 8)
  • ...

Nitrate Aluminate and other minerals

All rather water soluble. See: (wikipedia - minerals) (wikipedia - artificial)

Aluminates: (wikipedia)

Related

External links